ISSUE ADDRESSED: This study used the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM) to describe reparticipation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening according to social cognitive and background variables. METHODS: A random sample of men and women aged 50-74 years living in South Australia completed a questionnaire measuring TTM stage and attitudes toward screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBT). Participants were categorised according to four stages of readiness to rescreen: action, maintenance, relapse and inconsistent. Multivariate techniques were used to determine predictors of lower readiness stages compared with maintenance. RESULTS: Of the 849 study participants, 29.9% were either non-adherent or had no intentions to maintain adherence (inconsistent and relapse). Compared with maintenance rescreeners, relapse participants reported less: social influences to screen (RR=0.86, p<0.001); satisfaction with prior screening (RR=0.87, p=0.03), self-efficacy (RR=0.96, p=0.01); and screening benefits (RR=0.84, p<0.001). Relapse participants were also more likely to not have private health insurance (RR=1.33, p=0.04) and be unaware of the need to repeat screening (RR=1.41, p=0.02). Inconsistent screeners were less likely to have planned when they will next rescreen (RR= 0.84, p=0.04) and reported greater barriers to rescreening (RR=1.05, p=0.05). Action participants were younger (RR= 0.98, p=<0.001), reported less social influences to screen (RR=0.94, p<0.001) and were less likely to have known someone who has had CRC (RR=0.82, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Social cognitive, demographic and background variables significantly differentiated screening maintenance from lower readiness stages.