We investigated whether the five-factor structure of the Preventive Health Model for colorectal cancer screening, developed in the United States, has validity in Australia. We also tested extending the model with the addition of the factor Self-Efficacy to Screen using Fecal Occult Blood Test (SESFOBT). Randomly selected men and women aged between 50 and 76 years (n = 414) responded to a survey. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the U.S. model provided adequate fit for the group as a whole and for men and women separately, thereby demonstrating cross-cultural validity for measuring factors influencing the decision to screen. The inclusion of SESFOBT in the model resulted in a comparable, but less parsimonious, fit. However, self-efficacy is a demonstrated mediator of intention and action, and it is argued that the addition of SESFOBT as a sixth factor may have utility for the design of strategies to increase actual uptake of FOBT.