Using fMRI, we showed that an area in the ventral temporo-occipital cortex (area vTO), which is part of the human homolog of the ventral stream of visual processing, exhibited priming for both identical and depth-rotated images of objects. This pattern of activation in area vTO corresponded to performance in a behavioral matching task. An area in the caudal part of the intraparietal sulcus (area cIPS) also showed priming, but only with identical images of objects. This dorsal-stream area treated rotated images as new objects. The difference in the pattern of priming-related activation in the two areas may reflect the respective roles of the ventral and dorsal streams in object recognition and object-directed action.