The present experiment was designed t investigate the role of posterior neocortex (areas 17, 18 and 18a) in the maintenance of performance on the radial maze. Following training to criterion on the 8-arm radial maze, rats received either sham operations, bilateral eye enucleations, lesions of posterior neocortex, or combined enucleations and lesions of posterior neocortex. While the enucleated animals with intact brains showed a slight, but significant performance decrement relative to the sham-operated group, the other two groups, with lesions of areas 17, 18 and 18a, each showed a massive deficit. This large deficit was observed even in the group in which both the eyes and neocortex had been removed. These results suggest that the visual projection areas of cortex not only play an important role in the maintenance of accurate radial-maze performance in sighted animals, but that the integrity of these areas is necessary for the maintenance fo criterion performance in blind animals.