OBJECTIVE: To investigate how many women wish to have a caesarean section when asked in early pregnancy, and to identify background variables associated with such a wish. DESIGN: National survey. SETTING: Swedish antenatal clinics. POPULATION: 3,283 Swedish-speaking women booked for antenatal care, at approximately 600 Swedish antenatal clinics, during three weeks spread over one year (1999-2000). METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed shortly after the first antenatal visit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's preferences for mode of delivery. RESULTS: 3,061 women completed the first questionnaire, corresponding to 94% of those who consented to participate after exclusion of reported miscarriages. The background characteristics of the study sample were very similar to a one-year cohort of women giving birth in Sweden during 1999. The result showed that 8.2% of the women would prefer to have a caesarean section. A wish for caesarean section was associated with parity, age, civil status, residential area and obstetric history. Women preferring caesarean section were more depressed and worried, not only about giving birth, but also about other things in life. A multivariate logistic regression model showed three factors being statistically associated with a wish for caesarean section: a previous caesarean section, fear of giving birth and a previous negative birth experience. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively few women wish to have a caesarean section when asked in early pregnancy, and these women seem to be a vulnerable group.