SPINDLY Is a Nuclear-Localized Repressor of Gibberellin Signal Transduction Expressed throughout the Plant Academic Article uri icon


  • SPY (SPINDLY) encodes a putative O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine transferase that is genetically defined as a negatively acting component of the gibberellin (GA) signal transduction pathway. Analysis of Arabidopsis plants containing a SPY::GUS reporter gene reveals that SPY is expressed throughout the life of the plant and in most plant organs examined. In addition to being expressed in all organs where phenotypes due to spy mutations have been reported, SPY::GUS is expressed in the root. Examination of the roots of wild-type, spy, and gai plants revealed phenotypes indicating that SPY and GAI play a role in root development. A second SPY::GUS reporter gene lacking part of the SPY promoter was inactive, suggesting that sequences in the first exon and/or intron are required for detectable expression. Using both subcellular fractionation and visualization of a SPY-green fluorescent protein fusion protein that is able to rescue the spy mutant phenotype, the majority of SPY protein was shown to be present in the nucleus. This result is consistent with the nuclear localization of other components of the GA response pathway and suggests that SPY's role as a negative regulator of GA signaling involves interaction with other nuclear proteins and/or O-N-acetyl-glucosamine modification of these proteins.


  • Swain, Stephen M
  • Tseng, Tong-Seung
  • Thornton, Tina M
  • Gopalraj, Manjula
  • Olszewski, Neil E

publication date

  • June 1, 2002

has subject area