Cyclic AMP-Dependent Kinase Regulates Raf-1 Kinase Mainly by Phosphorylation of Serine 259 Academic Article uri icon


  • The Raf-1 kinase activates the ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) pathway. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) can inhibit Raf-1 by direct phosphorylation. We have mapped all cAMP-induced phosphorylation sites in Raf-1, showing that serines 43, 259, and 621 are phosphorylated by PKA in vitro and induced by cAMP in vivo. Serine 43 phosphorylation decreased the binding to Ras in serum-starved but not in mitogen-stimulated cells. However, the kinase activity of a RafS43A mutant was fully inhibited by PKA. Mutation of serine 259 increased the basal Raf-1 activity and rendered it largely resistant to inhibition by PKA. cAMP increased Raf-1 serine 259 phosphorylation in a PKA-dependent manner with kinetics that correlated with ERK deactivation. PKA also decreased Raf-1 serine 338 phosphorylation of Raf-1, previously shown to be required for Raf-1 activation. Serine 338 phosphorylation of a RafS259A mutant was unaffected by PKA. Using RafS259 mutants we also demonstrate that Raf-1 is the sole target for PKA inhibition of ERK and ERK-induced gene expression, and that Raf-1 inhibition is mediated mainly through serine 259 phosphorylation.


  • Dhillon, AS
  • Pollock, C
  • Steen, H
  • Shaw, PE
  • Mischak, H
  • Kolch, W

publication date

  • May 15, 2002

has subject area