Ongoing production of neurons in adult brain is restricted to specialized neurogenic niches. Deregulated expression of genes controlling homeostasis of neural progenitor cell division and/or their microenvironment underpins a spectrum of brain pathologies. Using conditional gene deletion, we show that the proto-oncogene c-myb regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation and maintains ependymal cell integrity in mice. These two cellular compartments constitute the neurogenic niche in the adult brain. Brains devoid of c-Myb showed enlarged ventricular spaces, ependymal cell abnormalities, and reduced neurogenesis. Neural progenitor cells lacking c-Myb showed a reduced intrinsic proliferative capacity and reduction of Sox-2 and Pax-6 expression. These data point to an important role for c-Myb in the neurogenic niche of the adult brain.