Limitations in Life Participation and Independence Due to Secondary Conditions Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract The effects of secondary conditions across adults with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy were explored in terms of overall limitation in life participation and independence, changes over time, and the degree and nature of limitation in specific secondary conditions. Information was obtained for 35 adults with autism, 49 with Down syndrome, and 29 with cerebral palsy (N  =  113). Caregivers completed a questionnaire exploring secondary conditions on two occasions. Participants with cerebral palsy experienced the greatest overall limitations of the three groups. This finding is due to several secondary conditions. There were no changes in limitation scores over time. Implications related to health care for these groups are discussed.

publication date

  • November 1, 2009