Geno‐Diver: A combined coalescence and forward‐in‐time simulator for populations undergoing selection for complex traits Academic Article uri icon


  • Geno-Diver is a combined coalescence and forward-in-time simulator designed to simulate complex traits with a quantitative and/or fitness component and implement multiple selection and mating strategies utilizing pedigree or genomic information. The simulation is carried out in two steps. The first step generates whole-genome sequence data for founder individuals. A variety of trait architectures can be generated for quantitative and fitness traits along with their covariance. The second step generates new individuals forward-in-time based on a variety of selection and mating scenarios. Genetic values are predicted for individuals utilizing pedigree or genomic information. Relationship matrices and their associated inverses are generated using computationally efficient routines. We benchmarked Geno-Diver with a previous simulation program and described how to simulate a traditional quantitative trait along with a quantitative and fitness trait. A user manual with examples, source code in C++11 and executable versions of Geno-Diver for Linux are freely available at

publication date

  • 2017