Posterior shoulder instability is recognised as being less prevalent than anterior instability, however the diagnosis of this pathology is easily overlooked or missed and this may contribute to an underestimation of prevalence. Recently, there has been increasing recognition of this condition and consequently a greater requirement for knowledge of diagnostic procedures and treatment directions. Currently there is limited research into the conservative management of posterior instability, although it is recommended as first-line treatment prior to surgical review, particularly in those with an atraumatic instability mechanism. The aim of this paper is to outline a comprehensive rehabilitation program for the conservative management of posterior instability with a focus on scapular and humeral head control. The information provided includes extensive written information, flowcharts, figures and a table of management parameters that will provide therapists with adequate detail to replicate the program in the clinical setting.