Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long bone fracture are common in polytrauma. This injury combination in mice results in elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and exacerbated neuropathology when compared to isolated-TBI. Here we examined the effect of treatment with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in mice given a TBI and a concomitant tibial fracture (i.e., polytrauma). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were given sham-injuries or polytrauma and treated with saline-vehicle or IL-1ra (100mg/kg). Treatments were subcutaneously injected at 1, 6, and 24h, and then once daily for one week post-injury. 7-8 mice/group were euthanized at 48h post-injury. 12-16 mice/group underwent behavioral testing at 12weeks post-injury and MRI at 14weeks post-injury before being euthanized at 16weeks post-injury. At 48h post-injury, markers for activated microglia and astrocytes, as well as neutrophils and edema, were decreased in polytrauma mice treated with IL-1ra compared to polytrauma mice treated with vehicle. At 14weeks post-injury, MRI analysis demonstrated that IL-1ra treatment after polytrauma reduced volumetric loss in the injured cortex and mitigated track-weighted MRI markers for axonal injury. As IL-1ra (Anakinra) is approved for human use, it may represent a promising therapy in polytrauma cases involving TBI and fracture.