The Nurse Practitioner role is currently being implemented in most Australian states. This model of practice has existed overseas, predominantly in North America,for many years. The experiences of those countries can help inform the implementation of the role in Australia. This paper reviews the overseas literature concerning one practice context, that of the Neonatal Nurse Practitioner. The scope of the role, issues surrounding educational preparation, impact of the role on health outcomes, and factors identified as facilitating and constraining the role, are all discussed. The implications for the Australian context are highlighted.