Recent research has shown that daily changes in self-efficacy predict lapses and relapse into smoking after quitting among adolescent daily smokers, but it is not known if and how momentary self-efficacy is associated with affect-motivational states and external contexts. In the present study, 134 adolescent daily smokers were monitored daily during 1 week prior to and 3 weeks after they began their quit attempt. Participants completed questions on smoking, self-efficacy, affect-motivational states (craving and negative affect), and external contexts (seeing others smoke, experiencing a stressful event, and alcohol and coffee consumption) three times a day. Affect-motivational states as well as all external contexts (except for coffee consumption) were associated with lower self-efficacy when participants were still abstinent, but also after they had lapsed. Associations between the situational contexts and self-efficacy did not largely depend on individual characteristics such as baseline self-efficacy and age. Among girls, however, the negative associations between self-efficacy and negative affect and drinking alcohol were found to be stronger. These results show that adolescents' self-efficacy during a quit attempt may be responsive to affect-motivational states and external contexts, both before and after lapsing.