Beyond Drinking: Differential Effects of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Alcohol-Related Adverse Consequences across European Countries Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Evidence underlines the importance of drinking patterns and individual characteristics in experiencing adverse alcohol-related consequences; however, little research has been conducted to explore who does and who does not experience consequences with similar drinking patterns. Using data from seven European countries, this study assesses the association between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and six adverse consequences. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression models were estimated, cases (experiencing a consequence) being matched to controls (not experiencing the consequence) by drinking patterns. RESULTS: In general, protective effects with increasing age and being in a partnership were consistent. Gender effects were mixed, but mainly protective for women. Educational achievement and economic status showed consistent effects across countries, but different directions of effect across consequences. Consequences mostly associated with individual drinking pattern (injury, blackout, and loss of control over drinking) exhibited similar patterns of associations, but varying ones arose for consequences additionally influenced by societal reaction to drinking (guilt, role failure, and pressure to cut down drinking). CONCLUSION: Differences in strengths and directions of effects across consequences pointed to the possibility that the reporting of adverse consequences is not only influenced by alcohol consumption, but also by attributional processes related to demographic and socioeconomic statuses.


  • Kuendig, Herv eacute
  • Plant, Moira L
  • Plant, Martin A
  • Kuntsche, Sandra
  • Miller, Patrick
  • Gmel, Gerhard

publication date

  • 2008