Myopia (short-sightedness) and hyperopia (long-sightedness) occur when the eye grows too long or short, respectively, for its refractive power. There are currently approximately 1.45 billion myopes worldwide and prevalence is rising dramatically. Although high myopia significantly increases the risk of developing a range of sight-threatening disorders, the molecular mechanisms underlying ocular growth regulation and its relationship to these secondary complications remain poorly understood. Thus, this study meta-analyzed transcriptome datasets collected in the commonly used chick model of optically-induced refractive error. Fifteen datasets (collected across five previous studies) were obtained from GEO, preprocessed in Bioconductor, and divided into 4 conditions representing early (≤1 day) and late (>1 day) myopia and hyperopia induction. Differentially expressed genes in each condition were then identified using Rank Product meta-analysis. The results provide novel evidence for transcriptional activation of the complement system during both myopia and hyperopia induction, and confirm existing literature implicating cell signaling, mitochondrial, and structural processes in refractive error. Further comparisons demonstrated that the meta-analysis results also significantly improve concordance with broader omics data types (i.e., human genetic association and animal proteomics studies) relative to previous transcriptome studies, and show extensive similarities with the genes linked to age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, and cataract.