Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders (AMDs) in HIV-infected individuals has varied widely because of the variety of measurements used and differences in risk factor profiles between different populations. We aimed to examine the relationship between HIV status and hospitalization for AMDs in gay and bisexual men (GBM).HIV-infected (n = 557) and HIV-uninfected (n = 1325) GBM recruited in Sydney, Australia were probabilistically linked to their hospital admissions and death notifications (2000-2012). Random-effects Poisson models were used to assess HIV risk factors for hospitalization. Cox regression methods were used to assess risk factors for mortality.We observed 300 hospitalizations for AMDs in 15.3% of HIV-infected and 181 in 5.4% of HIV-uninfected participants. Being infected with HIV was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in risk of hospitalization for AMDs in GBM. Other risk factors in the HIV-infected cohort included previous hospitalization for HIV-related dementia, a more recent HIV diagnosis, and a CD4 T-cell count above 350 cells per cubic millimeter. Being hospitalized for an AMD was associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of mortality; this association did not differ by HIV status. An association between substance use and mortality was observed in individuals hospitalized for AMDs.There is a need to provide more effective strategies to identify and treat AMDs in HIV-infected GBM. This research highlights the importance of further examination of the effects of substance use, neurocognitive decline, and AMDs on the health of HIV-infected individuals.