Platelets are essential for maintaining vascular integrity. Given the anucleate nature of platelets, definition of their proteome is essential for understanding platelet pathophysiology. We describe here a detailed MS-based proteomic analysis of the platelet membrane/cytoskeletal sub-proteome from purified, normal, non-activated human platelets. In contrast to previous platelet proteomic purification strategies, the buffy-coat method was utilized in this study to isolate and purify minimally activated platelets, yielding significantly reduced contaminants for leukocytes (0.02 ± 0.007×10(6) /L) and erythrocytes (0.21 ± 0.02%). Using a false discovery rate of 1%, 203 proteins were identified and characterized with respect to their subcellular localization, biological function, and cellular processes. Of these, 16 have not been identified in previous human platelet proteome studies. As a first approach towards understanding the dynamic platelet-plasma protein composition nexus, we re-analysed the entire HUPO plasma proteome project dataset (647 plasma proteins identified) and compared these data with our platelet proteome dataset. Co-identified proteins (41) were further analysed with respect to their relative abundances (exponentially modified protein abundance index) and functional enrichment in these two proteomes, as well as their correlation with the platelet transcriptome. Both platelet membrane/cytoskeletal and plasma proteome reference datasets, comprising both processed and unprocessed MS/MS spectra, are publicly accessible (http://www.ludwig.edu.au/archive/).