Human blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from an individual into the circulatory system of another. From the theory of circulation of blood to the early practice of blood transfusion, transfusion medicine has been an important concept for many centuries. The practicality of transfusion, however, only became a possibility during and shortly after the Second World War. Today, blood and its derivatives play a critical role in worldwide health care systems, with blood components having direct clinical indications. Over the past several years worldwide organizations including the World Health Organization (WHO) have made a number of substantial improvements to the regulation of the worlds blood supply. This continuous supply plays a critical role throughout health care systems worldwide, with procedures for blood collection, processing, and storage now complex, standardised processes. As the areas of clinical validation of different disease states from blood-derived sources (i.e., disease biomarkers) move towards validation stages, the importance of controlled- and standardised-protocols is imperative.