Platelets are specialized blood cells that play central roles in physiologic and pathologic processes of hemostasis, wound healing, host defense, thrombosis, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. Activation of platelets is crucial for platelet function that includes a complex interplay of adhesion, signaling molecules, and release of bioactive factors. Transfusion of platelet concentrates is an important treatment component for thrombocytopenia and bleeding. Recent progress in high-throughput mRNA and protein profiling techniques has advanced the understanding of platelet biological functions toward identifying novel platelet-expressed and secreted proteins, analyzing functional changes between normal and pathologic states, and determining the effects of processing and storage on platelet concentrates for transfusion. It is important to understand the different standard methods of platelet preparation and how they differ from the perspective for use as research samples in clinical chemistry. Two simple methods are described here for the preparation of research-scale platelet samples from whole blood, and detailed notes are provided about the methods used for the preparation of platelet concentrates for transfusion.