2014 consensus statement on improving pelvic floor muscle training adherence: International Continence Society 2011 State-of-the-Science Seminar Academic Article uri icon


  • To summarize the findings and "expert-panel" consensus of the State-of-the-Science Seminar on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) adherence held prior to the 41st International Continence Society scientific meeting, Glasgow, 2011.Summaries of research and theory about PFMT adherence (based on a comprehensive literature search) were presented by subject experts at the 2011 Seminar to generate discussion and guidance for clinical practice and future research. Supplemental research, post-seminar, resulted in, three review papers summarizing: (1) relevant behavioral theories, (2) adherence measurement, determinants and effectiveness of PFMT adherence interventions, and (3) patients' PFMT experiences. A fourth, reported findings from an online survey of health professionals and the public.Few high-quality studies were found. Paper I summarizes 12 behavioral frameworks relevant to theoretical development of PFMT adherence interventions and strategies. Findings in Paper II suggest both PFMT self-efficacy and intention-to-adhere predict PFMT adherence. Paper III identified six potential adherence modifiers worthy of further investigation. Paper IV found patient-related factors were the biggest adherence barrier to PFMT adherence.Given the lack of high-quality studies, the conclusions were informed by expert opinion. Adherence is central to short- and longer-term PFMT effect. More attention and explicit reporting is needed regarding: (1) applying health behavior theory in PFMT program planning; (2) identifying adherence determinants; (3) developing and implementing interventions targeting known adherence determinants; (4) using patient-centred approaches to evaluating adherence barriers and facilitators; (5) measuring adherence, including refining and testing instruments; and (6) testing the association between adherence and PFMT outcome.


  • Dumoulin, C
  • Hay-Smith, J
  • Frawley, H
  • McClurg, D
  • Alewijnse, D
  • Bo, K
  • Burgio, K
  • Chen, S-Y
  • Chiarelli, P
  • Dean, S
  • Hagen, S
  • Herbert, J
  • Mahfooza, A
  • Mair, F
  • Stark, D
  • Van Kampen, M

publication date

  • 2015