This paper, the first of four emanating from the International Continence Society's 2011 State-of-the-Science Seminar on pelvic-floor-muscle training (PFMT) adherence, aimed to summarize the literature on theoretical models to promote PFMT adherence, as identified in the research, or suggested by the seminar's expert panel, and recommends future directions for clinical practice and research.Existing literature on theories of health behavior were identified through a conventional subject search of electronic databases, reference-list checking, and input from the expert panel. A core eligibility criterion was that the study included a theoretical model to underpin adherence strategies used in an intervention to promote PFM training/exercise.A brief critique of 12 theoretical models/theories is provided and, were appropriate, their use in PFMT adherence strategies identified or examples of possible uses in future studies outlined.A better theoretical-based understanding of interventions to promote PFMT adherence through changes in health behaviors is required. The results of this scoping review and expert opinions identified several promising models. Future research should explicitly map the theories behind interventions that are thought to improve adherence in various populations (e.g., perinatal women to prevent or lessen urinary incontinence). In addition, identified behavioral theories applied to PFMT require a process whereby their impact can be evaluated.