OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence for the provision of foot orthoses when treating individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), and prescription is frequently based on the assessment of foot posture/function. However, evaluation of the link between abnormal foot posture/function and foot orthoses outcomes has previously been limited to static alignment measures and has produced inconsistent findings. In this study, the ability of baseline foot kinematics associated with pronation to predict marked improvement 12 weeks following foot orthoses prescription in individuals with PFPS was evaluated. METHODS: 26 individuals with PFPS were issued with prefabricated foot orthoses, and patient-reported level of improvement was documented at 12 weeks. Potential predictors of marked improvement at 12 weeks were measured during walking at baseline and included forefoot dorsiflexion and abduction, and rearfoot eversion. RESULTS: Of the 25 participants who completed the study, seven (28%) reported marked improvement with the foot orthoses after 12 weeks. Discriminant function analysis revealed a greater peak rearfoot eversion to be the only significant independent predictor of marked improvement. CONCLUSION: These findings provide preliminary evidence that greater peak rearfoot eversion is predictive of marked improvement 12 weeks following prefabricated foot orthoses prescription in individuals with PFPS. Therefore, foot orthoses may be most effective in the subgroup of people with PFPS and increased dynamic foot pronation.