Rates of depression and anxiety are disproportionately high among lesbians and gay men, and stigma-related stress is thought to be a major factor. While reducing stigma remains a priority, developing ways to assist lesbians and gay men to build resilience to stigma-related stress is also a growing priority among policymakers and health professionals. This article summarizes major conceptual work and research on resilience among lesbians and gay men, including key findings from a nationwide online survey involving 2,793 Australian lesbians and gay men aged 16 years and older that examined demographic and psychosocial factors related to resilience. Research on resilience in gay and lesbian populations is currently a small field but appears to be growing. As recommended in this article, further work is needed to identify circumstances in which lesbians and gay men display resilience to stigma-related stress and to systematically test resilience training programmes that help to prevent depression and anxiety in these at-risk populations.