We describe here an antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, defined by a cDNA clone designated Ag361. The antigen is a soluble cytoplasmic 70-kD polypeptide present in all isolates analyzed and in all stages of asexual development in the blood. The antigen is a natural immunogen, although it lacks repeating epitopes of many P. falciparum antigens. Ag361 shares extensive sequence homology with the hsp70 proteins of Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, Escherichia coli, and man, as well as a previously isolated P. falciparum hsp70 protein. The genome of P. falciparum contains at least five hsp70-like genes, located on at lest four different chromosomes.