We examined the independent demographic and psychosocial factors associated with psychological distress and resilience among transgender men and women.Our data came from an online survey involving a national Australian sample of 169 transgender men and women in 2011. Survey questions assessed demographics; sources of support; contact with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender peers; and experiences of victimization. We assessed the outcomes with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Brief Resilience Scale.In all, 46.0% of the sample reported high or very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariable regression analyses identified considerably different independent factors for psychological distress and resilience. Younger age, feeling unable to turn to family for support, and victimization experiences were associated with greater psychological distress, whereas higher income, identifying as heterosexual, and having frequent contact with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender peers were associated with greater resilience.With different factors identified for psychological distress and resilience, these findings may help inform the development of tailored mental health interventions and resilience-building programs for this vulnerable population.