Cytokine regulation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) production in cultured human synovial fibroblasts. II. Similarities and differences in the control of interleukin-1 induction of granulocyte-macrophage CSF and granulocyte-CSF production
Synovial fibroblasts are likely to be a significant source of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), which could be crucial to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Northern analysis, GM-CSF and G-CSF expression were followed in human synovial fibroblast-like cells in response to a number of agents, either alone or in the presence of an optimal stimulatory concentration of interleukin-1 (IL-1). For both CSFs, interferon-gamma (100 U/mL) did not increase their levels but dramatically suppressed the stimulatory action of IL-1, while basic fibroblast growth factor (10(-8) mol/L), although nonstimulatory by itself, potentiated IL-1 action. The glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (10(-7) mol/L), inhibited IL-1-stimulated CSF production. However, evidence was obtained for noncoordinated CSF regulation. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors potentiated the action of IL-1 on GM-CSF synthesis but suppressed G-CSF synthesis, suggesting that endogenous cyclooxygenase products can have opposite effects in modulating the levels of each CSF. Also, the lymphokine, IL-4 (250 pmol/L), slightly inhibited GM-CSF formation in the presence of IL-1 but elevated the G-CSF levels in these cultures without having an effect by itself. Transforming growth factor beta (less than or equal to 20 ng/mL) did not modulate levels of either CSF. Mesenchymal cell production of both GM-CSF and G-CSF is generally viewed as being under coordinate control; our findings suggest that their synthesis in IL-1-stimulated human synoviocytes can be modulated by a number of agents, in some cases with divergent actions depending on which CSF is examined.