1. A convergent or divergent strabismus was induced surgically in eight kittens and a cyclotropia of about 90 deg in two additional kittens. 2. Behavioural measurements were made of the visual acuity of each eye for square-wave gratings. All eight animals that were so tested displayed a reduction of acuity in one eye relative to the other of 1.3-2.5 octaves. 3. The activity of retinal ganglion cells was recorded within the amblyopic eye of six cats, three with a convergent strabismus, two with a divergent strabismus and one with a cyclotropia. Measurements were made of the spatial resolution with 215 on-centre cells for horizontal and vertical gratings. 4. In contrast to other reports, we found the spatial resolution of ganglion cells in the amblyopic eye of the strabismic animals to be comparable to those of normal cats at all retinal eccentricities. In particular there was no evidence for a loss of resolution in the vicinity of the area centralis. 5. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (l.g.n.) revealed no evidence of cell shrinkage in laminae receiving a projection from the amblyopic eye. 6. Together, these findings lead to the conclusion that the neural deficit responsible for the strabismic amblyopia in these animals did not lie in the retina but rather at more central levels of the visual pathway.