The corticocortical connections and receptive field properties of primary or striate visual cortex of the brushtailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, have been examined. In this Australian marsupial species primary visual cortex has connections with four other visual areas in the occipital lobe. In these adjacent visual areas fibers from striate cortex terminate mainly in layers 3 and 4 and in some cases also in layers 1 and 2. In all four areas return connections to striate cortex originate predominantly in layers 2 and 3, and to a much lesser extent in layers 5 and 6. Interhemispheric connections of striate cortex are limited to the boundary of striate and peristriate cortex. In addition to its cortical connections, striate cortex makes reciprocal connections with the claustrum. Most neurons in striate cortex are highly binocular. Of our sample of 113 visually responsive neurons, only 30% were orientation selective. On the basis of these observations we have compared striate cortex of the marsupial brushtailed possum with striate cortices of the American marsupial opossum and those of placental mammals.