Topical steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAID) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are known to affect fluid balance. The effects of twice daily topical applications of Maxidex (dexamethasone, a SAID), Acular (ketorolac, a NSAID), and saline were examined biometrically on the development of refractive errors and eye growth in chicks raised from days 3-12 wearing either a monocular +10 D, 0 D, or -10 D lens. Biometric analysis showed that neither SAID nor NSAID nor saline affected refractive error compensation but that the anti-inflammatory drugs affected eye growth. In chicks reared with a +10 D lens, dexamethasone induced a decrease in axial length (AL), vitreous chamber (VC) and anterior chamber (AC) depth, while ketorolac only induced a decrease in AC. In -10 D lens chicks dexamethasone again induced a decrease in AL and VC, but did not affect AC depth, whereas ketorolac only induced an increase in AC depth. Taken together, these results suggest that anti-inflammatory drugs can induce changes in ocular size without affecting refractive state and, as such, have implications for the management of progressive myopia.