We investigated the biomechanical changes that occur in the lower limb following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics were evaluated in 32 patients before and 12 months following TKA and 28 age-matched controls. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc tests showed no significant changes in knee joint kinematics and kinetics following TKA despite significant improvements in pain and function. Significant increases in peak ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion moments and ankle power generation were observed which may be a compensatory response to impaired knee function to allow sufficient power generation for propulsion. Differences in knee gait parameters may arise as a result of the presence of osteoarthritis and mechanical changes associated with TKA as well as retention of the pre-surgery gait pattern.