A randomised controlled trial (29 participants) was used to compare a 6-week proprioceptive and balance exercise program with a 6-week strengthening program in the early phases of rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Measurements of functional activity were taken by a blinded assessor before the intervention and at the end of the 6 weeks. Results demonstrated that there were no significant differences between groups on hop testing at 6 weeks. For several items in the Cincinnati knee rating system and the patient specific functional scale however, the strengthening group improved more than the proprioceptive and balance group (p < .05). The hypothesis that proprioceptive and balance training would improve functional activity more than strengthening exercises was not supported. There was either no difference between the two forms of exercise or strength training may be more beneficial than proprioceptive and balance training in the early phase of rehabilitation after ACL reconstructive surgery.