AIMS: Hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTgW) is predictive of cardiovascular disease. The HTgW relationship with diabetes is little studied. METHODS: This study analysed data from diabetes and cardiovascular risk factor screening programmes in remote Indigenous Australian settlements. Elevated waist girth (EW) was defined as ≥90 cm for men (n = 1134) or ≥80 cm for women (n = 1313). Hypertriglyceridemia (ETg) was defined as ≥1.7 mmol/L. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L. Body mass index (BMI) was categorised as <22, 22-24.9 and >25.0 kg/m(2). Logistic regression was used to analyse the odds of newly-diagnosed diabetes for individuals with either HTgW, ETg or EW, relative to individuals with values below cut-offs. RESULTS: The prevalence of HTgW was 33.2% for men and 34.8% for women. Accounting for age-group and gender, newly-diagnosed diabetes was associated (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval)) with HTgW: 9.6 (6.6, 13.8). The relationship remained strong after accounting for the covariates BMI and smoking (OR = 4.9 (2.7, 8.8)). In BMI-stratified analyses the strongest odds were observed for the lowest category (<22 kg/m(2): OR = 12.9 (4.0, 41.7)). CONCLUSIONS: HTgW has a high prevalence and is associated with newly-diagnosed diabetes in Indigenous people, particularly those with BMI <22 kg/m(2), whom clinicians might not normally consider for screening.