The study of dietary patterns is gaining interest. Although the health benefits of yogurt and lignans have been investigated separately, to our knowledge there are no studies on their associative effects.The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between yogurt and lignans using biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in an elderly population.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association between baseline dietary information and cardiovascular risk parameters using food frequency questionnaires.We enrolled 7,169 Spanish participants of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (elderly men and women at high cardiovascular risk) from June 2003 to June 2009.Cardiovascular risk parameters, including cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, body mass index, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured.General linear models were used to assess the relationship between categorical variables (yogurt, total dairy intake, lignans, and yogurt plus lignans) and cardiovascular risk parameters.The consumption of either yogurt or lignans seems to have beneficial effects on human health, but the consumption of both showed greater improvement in some cardiovascular health parameters. Indeed, participants with a higher consumption of both yogurt and lignans showed lower total cholesterol (estimated β-coefficients=-6.18; P=0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (β=-4.92; P=0.005). In contrast, participants with lower yogurt and lignan consumption had a higher body mass index (β=0.28; P=0.007) and weight (β=1.20; P=0.008).High lignan and yogurt consumption is associated with a better cardiovascular risk parameters profile in an elderly Mediterranean population. Further research is warranted to determine the mechanisms and consequences of this potential effect.