Histidine-rich glycoprotein: the Swiss Army knife of mammalian plasma Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), also known as histidine-proline-rich glyco-protein, is an abundant and well-characterized protein of vertebrate plasma. HRG has a multidomain structure that allows the molecule to interact with many ligands, including heparin, phospholipids, plasminogen, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, C1q, heme, and Zn2+. The ability of HRG to interact with various ligands simultaneously has suggested that HRG can function as an adaptor molecule and regulate numerous important biologic processes, such as immune complex/necrotic cell/pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. The present review covers the proposed multifunctional roles of HRG with a focus on recent findings that have led to its emergence as a key regulator of immunity and vascular biology. Also included is a discussion of the striking functional similarities between HRG and other important multifunctional proteins found in plasma, such as C-reactive protein, C1q, β2 glycoprotein I, and thrombospondin-1.

publication date

  • February 17, 2011

published in