Beneficial changes in food consumption and nutrient intake after 10 years of follow-up in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project Academic Article uri icon


  • The assessment of changes in dietary habits provides interesting information on whether or not the observed trends are in line with accepted nutritional guidelines. The objective was to evaluate within-subject longitudinal changes in food consumption and nutrient intake and in a 10-year follow-up study.The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project is a prospective Spanish cohort study. Diet was assessed using a 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), previously validated in Spain. The participants were 3036 university graduates (55.8 % women) of Spain and the main outcome measures the changes in dietary quality and in food consumption and nutrient intake. Paired t-tests and conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate within-subject longitudinal dietary changes and the risk of inadequacy respectively, after 10 years of follow-up.During follow-up, participants showed a relevant and significant increase (p < 0.001) in the consumption of fruits (7.4 %), vegetables (8.6 %), low-fat dairy products (35.2 %), lean meat (12.4 %), fish (2.9 %), whole grains (53.2 %), nuts (52.4 %) and a significant decrease in legumes (-7.4 %), whole-fat dairy products (-44.2 %), red meat (-17.6 %), sugar-sweetened beverages (-58.7 %) and wine (-11.9 %). With respect to nutrients, we found a higher proportion of carbohydrates (3.6 %) and fiber (7.4 %) and a decrease in total energy intake (2.7 %), total fat (-4.5 %), SFA (-9.4 %), MUFA (-4.9 %), PUFA (-12.7 %), w-3 and w-6 fatty acids (-9.1 and -20.5 % respectively) and cholesterol (-9.6 %).In this Mediterranean cohort study, mainly beneficial changes in the consumption of most foods and macronutrients were observed after 10 years of follow-up.


publication date

  • 2016