Histidine-rich glycoprotein is a novel plasma pattern recognition molecule that recruits IgG to facilitate necrotic cell clearance via FcγRI on phagocytes Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract Under normal physiologic conditions, necrotic cells resulting from tissue injury are rapidly removed from the circulation and tissues by phagocytes, thus preventing the exposure of intracellular antigenic and immunostimulatory molecules that can aid the development of autoimmune disease. Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), a relatively abundant plasma glycoprotein, has a multidomain structure that can interact with many ligands including components of the fibrinolytic and immune systems. Recently, it has been reported that HRG can bind strongly to cytoplasmic ligand(s) exposed in necrotic cells to enhance clearance by phagocytes. Here we describe the molecular mechanisms underpinning this process. A complex consisting of both HRG and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found as necessary to aid necrotic cell uptake by monocytes, predominantly via an FcγRI-dependent mechanism. The findings in this study also show that HRG can potentially interact with anionic phospholipids exposed in necrotic cells. Furthermore, the enhanced phagocytosis of necrotic cells induced by HRG-IgG complexes triggers phagocytes to release proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor. Thus, HRG has the unique property of complexing with IgG and facilitating a proinflammatory innate immune response to promote the clearance of necrotic cells.

publication date

  • March 25, 2010

published in