Histidine-rich Glycoprotein Specifically Binds to Necrotic Cells via Its Amino-terminal Domain and Facilitates Necrotic Cell Phagocytosis Academic Article uri icon


  • Cells that become necrotic or apoptotic through tissue damage or during normal cellular turnover are usually rapidly cleared from the circulation and tissues by phagocytic cells. A number of soluble proteins have been identified that facilitate the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, but few proteins have been defined that selectively opsonize necrotic cells. Previous studies have shown that histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), an abundant (approximately 100 microg/ml) 75-kDa plasma glycoprotein, binds to cell surface heparan sulfate on viable cells and cross-links other ligands, such as plasminogen, to the cell surface. In this study we have demonstrated that HRG also binds very strongly, in a heparan sulfate-independent manner, to cytoplasmic ligand(s) exposed in necrotic cells. This interaction is mediated by the amino-terminal domain of HRG and results in enhanced phagocytosis of the necrotic cells by a monocytic cell line. In contrast, it was found that HRG binds poorly to and does not opsonize early stage apoptotic cells. Thus, HRG has the unique property of selectively recognizing necrotic cells and may play an important physiological role in vivo by facilitating the uptake and clearance of necrotic, but not apoptotic, cells by phagocytes.

publication date

  • October 21, 2005

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