It has been shown that NADPH oxidase plays a role in oxidative stress which has been involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. The -930A/G polymorphism of the CYBA gene (that codes p22phox, a major component of the NADPH oxidase) has been associated with human hypertension and with a reduction in NADPH oxidase activity. In this work, we have examined the influence of the -930A/G polymorphism on obesity risk and insulin resistance in a case-control study of Spanish subjects (n=313). In the obese group (n=159), there was a statistically significant association between the GG genotype of the -930A/G polymorphism of the CYBA gene and fasting insulin levels and HOMA index. This outcome agrees with previous findings concerning functional analyses of this polymorphism and reinforces the hypothesis that insulin resistance is associated with oxidative stress. In conclusion, a protective effect in carriers of the -930A/G polymorphism of the p22phox gene against insulin resistance in a population of Spanish obese adults has been found.