BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several studies support the effectiveness of increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) to prevent hypertension. However, none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean setting. The aim of this study was to assess the association between F&V consumption and the risk of hypertension. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A prospective Mediterranean study (the SUN cohort), including 8594 participants aged 20-95 years (mean, 41.1) with median follow-up of 49 months. RESULTS: Analyses according to the joint classification by olive oil and F&V consumption showed a significant inverse relation between F&V consumption and the risk of hypertension only among participants with a low olive oil consumption (<15 g per day). Also, tests for trend were significant only in the low olive oil intake stratum. CONCLUSIONS: We found a statistically significant interaction (P=0.01) between olive oil intake and F&V consumption. These data suggest a sub-additive effect of both food items.