EpidemiologicaL methods are increasingly used to assess the role of genetic factors and their interaction with environmental factors, in the occurrence of diseases in populations. Nutrition is one of the most relevant components of the interaction between the human being and the environment. Therefore, the interaction between susceptibility genotypes and nutritional risk factors has a great importance in the study of several chronic diseases. The aim of this article is to review different epidemiologic study designs and basic methods of analysis commonly used in the evaluation of the interaction between nutritional and genetic factors. These study designs and analytical methods are equally valid for the assessment of genotype-environment or genotype-genotype interaction.