BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to assess the proportion of the healthy adult population from Pamplona who were aware of their blood cholesterol levels, and to identify factors associated with this awareness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was implemented with personal interview to 1066 citizens from Pamplona selected by a random routes sampling procedure. The city was stratified in three urban districts according to the socioeconomic status (high, middle, low). The response rate was 91.8%. The crude odds ratios were computed and a multivariable logistic regression model was fitted using awareness of the blood cholesterol level as the dependent variable, and age, sex, socioeconomic status and smoking as independent variables. RESULTS: 71.2% of the sample (95% CI: 68.3-74.0) reported having some cholesterol determination during the last five years. The multivariate analysis disclosed that non-smokers were aware of their cholesterol levels more frequently than smokers (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.0-1.9), determination of cholesterolemia was also less frequent in individuals under 30 years old and in females (adjusted OR in males: 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.0). Regarding socioeconomic status, cholesterol measurement was more frequent in middle and high levels with adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI 2.2-4.71 and 1.59; 95% CI 1.11-2.27), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cholesterol awareness was more frequent in older individuals and among males. It is remarkable that blood cholesterol measurement was less likely in population groups with worse coronary risk profile (lower socioeconomic status, smokers). This study suggests that there is a need for improving the awareness and control of blood cholesterol levels in healthy adults from Pamplona.