Clustering of adherence to personalised dietary recommendations and changes in healthy eating index within the Food4Me study Academic Article uri icon


  • AbstractObjectiveTo characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.DesignFood4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.SettingPan-European, Internet-based, 6-month randomised controlled trial.SubjectsAdults aged 18–79 years (n 1480).ResultsIndividuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).ConclusionsThe cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.


  • Livingstone, Katherine M
  • Celis-Morales, Carlos
  • Lara, Jose
  • Woolhead, Clara
  • O’Donovan, Clare B
  • Forster, Hannah
  • Marsaux, Cyril FM
  • Macready, Anna L
  • Fallaize, Rosalind
  • Navas-Carretero, Santiago
  • San-Cristobal, Rodrigo
  • Kolossa, Silvia
  • Tsirigoti, Lydia
  • Lambrinou, Christina P
  • Moschonis, George
  • Surwiłło, Agnieszka
  • Drevon, Christian A
  • Manios, Yannis
  • Traczyk, Iwona
  • Gibney, Eileen R
  • Brennan, Lorraine
  • Walsh, Marianne C
  • Lovegrove, Julie A
  • Martinez, J Alfredo
  • Saris, Wim HM
  • Daniel, Hannelore
  • Gibney, Mike
  • Mathers, John C

publication date

  • 2016