Language and Literacy: An exploratory scoping review regarding the “push-in” and “pull-out” intervention methods Report uri icon


  • Purpose: The purpose of this review was to explore current evidence for the ‘pull-out’ compared to the ‘push-in’ methods of language intervention for improving academic and social outcomes for children and adolescence with disabilities and/or learning difficulties. A secondary purpose was to consider the role of the speech-language pathologist with regard to these interventions. Method: An exploratory scoping review was conducted using Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) scoping review method to source key literature and other references relating to the topic. Results: A total of 764 articles were initially identified and 29 of these were relevant to the topic (refer to Appendix 2 and Appendix 3). These articles were categorized into nine key themes which could be utilized for future studies (refer to Table 1). Conclusion: Despite the common use of the terms and techniques ‘push-in’ and ‘pull-out’ and the possible advantages/disadvantages, there is minimal empirical evidence among published literature specifically comparing the two language and literacy interventions—indicating the need for further research to be undertaken—nevertheless important insights are provided regarding the utilization of these interventions.

publication date

  • 2017