Development and Reliability of an Intraoperative First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Cartilage Evaluation Tool for Use in Hallux Valgus Surgery Academic Article uri icon


  • The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of an intraoperative evaluation tool for assessing cartilage degeneration of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in hallux valgus surgery. During hallux valgus reconstruction, 2 examiners documented the location, depth, and surface area of cartilage lesions affecting the first MTPJ in 20 females aged 17 to 69 (mean 50.9 ± 13.5) years. Depth of cartilage lesions was assessed using the 5-level International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scale and a 3-level scale (normal, partial thickness, full thickness). Interexaminer reliability of lesion location and depth was assessed using absolute percentage agreement and kappa (κ) statistics, and interexaminer reliability of lesion surface area was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% limits of agreement (LOAs). For lesion location, percentage agreement ranged from 90% to 100% and κ values ranged from 0.78 to 1.00, reflecting substantial to excellent levels of agreement. For lesion depth using the ICRS and 3-level scale, percentage agreement ranged from 33% to 100% and weighted κ values ranged from 0 to 1.00, reflecting poor to excellent levels of agreement. For lesion surface area, the ICC was 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.97 to 0.99) and 95% LOA was 0.74 to 1.41, indicating excellent reliability. The results of this study demonstrate a generally high degree of reliability between examiners for the intraoperative use of the first metatarsophalangeal joint cartilage evaluation tool, and the tool may have some value in predicting surgical outcomes associated with hallux valgus.

publication date

  • January 2011

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