A Comparison of Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery at Two Output Energies for Enhancing the Delivery of Topically Applied LMX-4?? Cream Prior to Venipuncture Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: Laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD) has the potential for facilitating topical anesthesia with reduced onset time. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study we compared the efficacy and adverse event profile of LAD for topical anesthesia before venipuncture using two output energies (2.0 and 3.5 J/cm2). RESULTS: Mean Visual Analog Scale pain scores were not statistically different (P = 0.57) between the low-energy (mean = 6.7) and high-energy (mean = 8.1) lasers. CONCLUSIONS: LAD at an energy of 2.0 J/cm2 (570 mJ) is as effective, with similar adverse events, as an energy of 3.5 J/cm2 (1000 mJ) in facilitating topical anesthesia.


publication date

  • April 2007