The positive eating scale: relationship with objective health parameters and validity in Germany, the USA and India Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE:The prevailing focus regarding eating behaviour is on restriction, concern, worry and pathology. In contrast, the purpose of the present studies was to focus on a positive relationship with eating in non-clinical samples from Germany, the USA and India. DESIGN:In Study 1, the Positive Eating Scale (PES) was tested and validated in a large longitudinal sample (T1: N = 772; T2: N = 510). In Study 2, the PES was tested in online samples from the USA, India and Germany (total N = 749). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Health risk status was measured in Study 1 with objective health parameters (fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI). RESULTS:Study 1 revealed acceptable psychometric properties of the PES, internal consistency (α = .87), as well as test-retest reliability after six months (r = .67). Importantly, a positive relationship with eating was associated with decreased health risk factors six months later. In Study 2, the structure of the PES was confirmed for German, Indian and US-American adults, suggesting validity across remarkably different eating environments. CONCLUSION:A positive relationship with eating might be a fruitful starting point for prevention and intervention programmes promoting physical and psychological health.


  • Sproesser, Gudrun
  • Klusmann, Verena
  • Ruby, Matthew B
  • Arbit, Naomi
  • Rozin, Paul
  • Schupp, Harald T
  • Renner, Britta

publication date

  • March 4, 2018