Psychometric properties of a short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D-10) scale for screening depressive symptoms in healthy community dwelling older adults
BACKGROUND:The 10-item Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression Short Form (CES-D-10) is a widely used self-report measure of depression symptomatology. The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the CES-D-10 in healthy community dwelling older adults. METHODS:The sample consists of 19,114 community-based individuals residing in Australia and the United States who participated in the ASPREE trial baseline assessment. All individuals were free of any major illness at the time. We evaluated construct validity by performing confirmatory factor analysis, examined measurement invariance across country and gender followed by evaluating item discrimination bias in age, gender, race, ethnicity and education level, and assessing internal consistency. RESULTS:High item-total correlations and Cronbach's alpha indicated high internal consistency. The factor analyses suggested a unidimensional factor structure. Construct validity was supported in the overall sample, and by country and gender sub-groups. The CES-D-10 was invariant across countries, and although evidence of marginal gender non-invariance was observed there was no evidence of notable gender specific item discrimination bias. No notable differences in discrimination parameters or group membership measurement non-invariance were detected by gender, age, race, ethnicity, and education level. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest the CES-D-10 is a reliable and valid measure of depression in a volunteer sample. No noteworthy evidence of invariance and/or item discrimination bias is observed across gender, age, race, language and ethnic groups.