OBJECTIVE: To identify the nature, strength, and relative importance of influences on intentions to consume foods that are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). DESIGN: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. SUBJECTS: Two subsamples were surveyed via questionnaire: community members who responded to a local media advertisement (n = 79), and subjects in a dietary intervention trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 50). VARIABLES MEASURED: Using the TPB variables-intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control-questionnaire items were constructed to measure intention to consume omega-3-enriched novel foods. ANALYSIS: The results from subsamples did not differ and were combined for analysis. The determinants of intention defined in the TPB were investigated using multiple linear regressions. RESULTS: Regression analysis showed that the model was a significant determinant of intention (R2 = .725; P < .001). Attitude was a significant determinant of intention, whereas subjective norms and control beliefs were not. DISCUSSION: With attitude having the greatest influence on intentions, immediate prospects for modifying behavior are likely to come through a change in attitude, specifically in beliefs about the effectiveness of enriched products in achieving specific health benefits. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Promoters of omega-3-enriched foods would be advised to direct their promotions toward changing the attitudes of consumers about the effectiveness of the functional ingredient.