The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge and practice of lifestyle behaviors in healthy older adults related to the prevention of vascular dementia. Data were derived from a convenience sample of 281 Canadian participants 55 years of age and older. Lifestyle was measured using the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP). Seven knowledge sub-scales were developed consistent to the HPLP. Multivariate analysis found that four independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance of a healthy lifestyle score and included those who reported a lower level of stress, indicated a higher knowledge of interpersonal relations, had a better general health self-assessment and higher medical knowledge. These Canadian results were compared with those from a study conducted in Australia and found to be similar. The study argues that health professionals and health education programs can better promote and increase awareness of healthy lifestyle behaviors by assisting older adults to apply this knowledge in their daily lives. Specifically, the study discusses policy and practice implications with regards to lifestyle issues relating to health responsibility, physical activity, spirituality, stress management, interpersonal relationships and nutrition.